This technical reference describes the role of effective monitoring and provides a step-by-step overview of the entire monitoring process for single plant species. The challenges of successful monitoring involve efficient and specific design and a commitment to implementation of the monitoring project, from data collection to reporting and using results. The material in this reference is presented in a logical progression from planning and objective setting, designing the methodology, and taking the measurements in the field to analyzing and presenting the data and making the necessary management responses. However, many of the steps occur simultaneously or provide feedback for the others. Decisions made at each step of the monitoring process can affect the whole project and may sometime lead to reassessment of previous decisions.