Section 3. Technical Facts About Integrated Plant Management with Herbicides

The following herbicides are in the pyridine chemical family with a synthetic auxin/growth regulator mode of action. Active ingredients include aminopyralid (Milestone®, Capstone® and Opensight®), triclopyr (Vastlan™, Garlon® 4 Ultra, Pathfinder® II, Capstone, PastureGard® HL), clopyralid (Transline®), picloram (Tordon® 22K), and fluroxypyr (Vista® XRT, PastureGard HL). These herbicides are absorbed by leaves, stems and roots and are translocated (moved) throughout the plant accumulating in meristematic tissue. All of them have soil residual activity except triclopyr and fluroxypyr.

HERBICIDES CONTAINING Aminopyralid

Milestone® 

ACTIVE INGREDIENT
One gallon of Milestone herbicide contains 2 pounds (lbs) acid equivalent (ae) of aminopyralid.

USE RATE RANGE
3 to 7 fluid ounces of product per acre. Spot treatments may be made up to 14 fl oz/ac per annual growing season; however, not more than 50% of an acre may be treated.

ATTRIBUTES
Milestone provides excellent post-emergent and residual control of over 70 broadleaf weeds and woody plants, including knapweeds, hawkweeds, rush skeletonweed, and thistles, with proven tolerance to native grasses and many shrubs and forbs. The herbicide is an important tool for grassland restoration, habitat improvement. Can provide control or suppression of certain invasive winter annual grasses such as medusahead. Milestone is effective at low use rates and has a favorable ecotoxicology profile. It was registered under EPA’ s Reduced Risk Initiative. Milestone is approved for use on rangeland, permanent grass pastures, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) acres, non-cropland areas (such as roadside and utility rights-of-way), non-irrigation ditch banks, seasonally dry wetlands, natural areas, and other sites as described on the label. There are no grazing restrictions for any class of livestock including lactating animals.


Capstone®

ACTIVE INGREDIENTS
Capstone is a 1.1 lb ae/gallon product that contains 0.1 lb ae (1.6 oz ae) aminopyralid + 1 lb ae triclopyr amine.

USE RATE RANGE
4 to 9 pints of product per acre. Spot treatments may be made up to 18 pints per acre per annual growing season; however, not more than 50% of an acre may be treated.

ATTRIBUTES
Capstone combines residual broad spectrum control of problem weeds, including noxious and invasive broadleaf weeds and sensitive woody plants, and is safe to use on most desirable grasses. Capstone is approved for use on rangeland, permanent grass pastures (including grasses grown for hay), forests, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) acres, non-cropland areas (such as roadsides and utility rights-of-way), non-irrigation ditch banks, seasonally dry wetlands, natural areas, and other sites as described on the label. There are no grazing restrictions for any class of livestock including lactating animals. Capstone is the workhorse for any weed and brush control program where the control of both broadleaf weeds and woody plants are desired. The herbicide is the ideal product for cut surface treatments to woody plants. This amine formulation is essentially non-volatile and features a Caution signal word.


Opensight®

ACTIVE INGREDIENTS
Opensight is a dry formulation that contains both aminopyralid and metsulfuron methyl.

MODE OF ACTION
This product contains two modes of action – growth regulator and ALS inhibitor - which broadens the spectrum of weed and brush control and may reduce the development of weed resistant populations. 

USE RATE RANGE
1.5 to 3.3 ounces of product per acre. Spot treatments may be made up to 6.6 oz/ac per annual growing season. The dry formulation requires the addition of a surfactant (NIS, MSO, COC) for effective control.

ATTRIBUTES
Opensight herbicide provides excellent post-emergent and residual control of   over 160 broadleaf weeds and woody plants including many difficult to control invasive or noxious weeds such as wild parsnip, poison hemlock, houndstongue, hoary cress, and tansy ragwort. Opensight is a broad spectrum herbicide and does not have selectivity to many desirable forbs and shrubs while most native grasses are tolerant. The herbicide is approved for use on rangeland, permanent grass pasture, natural areas, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) acres, non-cropland areas (such as roadsides and utility rights-of- way), non-irrigation ditch banks, seasonally dry wetlands, natural areas, and other areas as described on the label.  There are no grazing restrictions for any class of livestock including lactating animals. 


HERBICIDE CONTAINING Clopyralid

Transline®

ACTIVE INGREDIENT
One gallon of Transline contains 3 lb ae of clopyralid. 

USE RATE RANGE
1/4 pint to 1.33 pints of product per acre.

ATTRIBUTES
Transline offers excellent control of target invasive and noxious weeds and certain woody plants, while providing the greatest selectivity to many tree, brush, and grass species. It can be safely applied under and over many conifer and non-legume woody plants and hardwoods. Use sites include rangeland and permanent grass pastures (including grasses growth for hay), non-cropland areas (including roadside and utility rights-of-way), forest sites and tree plantations, and wildlife openings, including grazed areas on these sites. Transline is not harmful to desirable native grasses and is effective on key species including thistles, knapweeds, locust, kudzu and many others. There are no grazing restrictions for any class of livestock including lactating animals.


HERBICIDE CONTAINING Fluroxypyr

Vista® XRT

ACTIVE INGREDIENT
One gallon of Vista XRT contains 2.8 lb ae of fluroxypyr formulated with a nonpetroleum-based solvent derived from naturally occurring seed oil.

USE RATE RANGE
Maximum application of 22 fluid ounces product per acre per year.

ATTRIBUTES
Provides excellent post emergence control of kochia (including ALS and dicamba-resistant biotypes), lespedeza, prickly pear, and other hard-to-control broadleaf weeds and brush on rangeland and pasture, rights-of-way (roadsides, electric utility, pipelines, railroads and more), industrial sites, non-irrigation ditch banks, conifer and tree plantations, and grazed areas in and around these sites. The herbicide is rain-fast one hour after application. Vista XRT is selective to broadleaf plants, will not harm grasses, and is not soil-active so may be applied under the canopy of desirable trees. This herbicideis not harmful to seedling grasses and can be used to control kochia in grass restorations.


HERBICIDE CONTAINING Picloram

Tordon® 22K

ACTIVE INGREDIENT:
One gallon of Tordon 22K contains 2 lb ae of picloram.

USE RATE RANGE:
1 to 2 pints of product per acre for broadleaf weeds.

For control of noxious or invasive weeds, do not apply more than 2 quarts of Tordon 22K per acre per annual growing season as a broadcast treatment. Spot treatments may be applied at the equivalent broadcast rate of up to 2 quarts per acre.

ATTRIBUTES
Tordon 22K herbicide provides excellent economical control of leafy spurge and many broadleaf noxious and invasive weeds. The herbicide has soil residual for lasting perennial broadleaf weed and brush control, andis not harmful to use on desirable grasses. Tordon 22K can be used on rangeland and permanent grass pastures, fallow cropland, CRP acres and non-cropland (such as roadsides). There are no grazing restrictions except for lactating dairy animals.


HERBICIDES CONTAINING Triclopyr

Vastlan™

ACTIVE INGREDIENT
One gallon of Vastlan contains 4 pounds acid equivalent per gallon (lbs ae/ gallon) of triclopyr choline. 

USE RATE RANGE
0.75 pints to 9 quarts of product per acre.
Apply no more than 2 quarts of Vastlan per acre per growing season on range and pasture sites, including rights-of-way, fence rows or any area where grazing or harvesting of hay is allowed.. On forestry sites, Vastlan may be used at rates up to 6 quarts per acre per year. For all terrestrial use sites other than range, pasture, forestry sites, and grazed/hayed areas, the maximum application rate is 9 quarts of Vastlan per acre per year.

ATTRIBUTES
Vastlan is a broad-spectrum herbicide with excellent activity on brush and some emerged broadleaf weeds, with no residual soil activity. Vastlan will provide good control of undesirable woody plants as a cut stump application (either undiluted or mixed with water) and will provide good to excellent control when applied as a foliar treatment. The herbicide can be applied to aquatic sites, such as marshes, wetlands, and the banks of moving water, ponds and lakes. The herbicide is selective to grasses and is not soil active so may be used under desirable trees (http://bit.ly/scro2011FAQs) 


Garlon® 4 Ultra

ACTIVE INGREDIENT
One gallon of Garlon 4 Ultra contains 4 lb ae of triclopyr formulated in a plant-based oil carrier as a low volatile ester.

USE RATE RANGE
1 to 4 quarts of product per acre broadcast to foliage or mixed as a percent solution in water or basal oil for woody plant treatments (see label by species).

ATTRIBUTES
Garlon 4 Ultra containsa plant derived methylated seed oil rather than a petroleum oil carrier and can be mixed with water or oil for application. This herbicide controls manywoody plantsand can be applied to foliage of weeds or woody plants (mixed with water) or as a basal bark, cut stump, and modified cut stump application (mixed with basal oil). Garlon 4 Ulta is not harmful to grasses and many forbs andis an effective tool to release native grasses. Itis not soil-active so may be applied under the canopy of desirable trees (http://bit.ly/scro2011FAQs).


Pathfinder® II

ACTIVE INGREDIENT
One gallon of Pathfinder II herbicide contains 0.75 lb ae of triclopyr ester (13.6%) formulated in a plant-based oil carrier.

ATTRIBUTES
Pathfinder II herbicide is a ready-to-use (no mixing required) herbicide for low-volume basal and cut-stump application of woody plants in forests, rangeland, permanent pasture and non-crop areas. The herbicide controls more than 80 woody plant species. The carrier in Pathfinder II is derived from a naturally occurring, non-petroleum substance and has a low odor. Individual dormant-plant treatments allow for use year-round.

USE TYPE
Apply to woody material only—not intended for foliage applications. 


PastureGard® HL

ACTIVE INGREDIENT
One gallon of PastureGard HL herbicide contains 3 lb ae triclopyr ester and 1 lb ae fluroxypyr formulated as an oil soluble, emulsifiable concentrate.

USE RATE RANGE
3/4 pint to 4 pints of product per acre.

ATTRIBUTES
PastureGard HL provides excellent selective control of many woody plants and broadleaf weeds such as sericea lespedeza, blackberry rose, kochia, and many others.The herbicide is not harmful to most grasses and many forbs and offers crop rotation flexibility due to the lack of soil resudual properties of the formulation. There are no composting restrictions for use of treated plants or manure from animals grazing treated forages. There are no grazing restrictions for any class of livestock including lactating animals.

The herbicide can be applied to rangeland, permanent grass pastures (inclusing grasses grown for hay), Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) acres, fencerows, and non-cropland areas, and non-irrigation ditch banks. PastureGard HL can be applied as a foliar, basal bark or cut stump treatmetn for control of woody plants. It is absorbed through plant foliage and stems and because of its lack of soil activity can beused under the canopy of desirable trees.

 

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Always read and follow label directions.

Milestone has no grazing or haying restrictions for any class of livestock, including lactating dairy cows, horses (including lactating mares) and meat animals prior to slaughter. However, label precautions do apply to forage treated with Milestone and to manure from animals that have consumed treated forage within the last three days. Consult the label for full details. Some states require an individual be licensed if involved in the recommendation, handling or application of any pesticide. Consult your local Extension office for information regarding licensing requirements. Milestone is not registered for sale or use in all states. Contact your state pesticide regulatory agency to determine if a product is registered for sale or use in your state. 

Capstone and Opensight specialty herbicides: When treating areas in and around roadside or utility rights-of-way that are or will be grazed, hayed or planted to forage, important label precautions apply regarding harvesting hay from treated sites, using manure from animals grazing on treated areas or rotating the treated area to sensitive crops. See the product label for details. 

State restrictions on the sale and use of Captsone, Garlon 4 Ultra, Opensight, Transline, and Vista XRT apply. Consult the label before purchase or use for full details.

Tordon 22K is a federally Restricted Use Pesticide.